## How does ion cyclotron resonance work?

Ion cyclotron resonance heating (or ICRH) is a technique in which electromagnetic waves with frequencies corresponding to the ion cyclotron frequency is used to heat up a plasma. The ions in the plasma absorb the electromagnetic radiation and as a result of this, increase in kinetic energy.

## Why are ions accelerated in a mass spectrometer?

The ions are accelerated so that they all have the same kinetic energy. The ions are then deflected by a magnetic field according to their masses. The lighter they are, the more they are deflected. The more the ion is charged, the more it gets deflected.

What is FT-ICR mass spectrometry?

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) is a trapped ion technique that determines the cyclotron frequency of ions trapped in a Penning trap inserted in a strong magnetic field.

What ion will be deflected most in a mass spectrometer?

The amount of deflection depends on:

• the mass of the ion. Lighter ions are deflected more than heavier ones.
• the charge on the ion. Ions with 2 (or more) positive charges are deflected more than ones with only 1 positive charge.

### What does Fticr stand for?

Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry is a high-resolution technique that can be used to determine masses with high accuracy.

### What do you mean by cyclotron frequency?

The cyclotron frequency or gyrofrequency is the frequency of a charged particle moving perpendicular to the direction of a uniform magnetic field B (constant magnitude and direction). Since that motion is always circular, the cyclotron frequency is given by equality of centripetal force and magnetic Lorentz force.

What are the four stages of a mass spectrometry?

There are four stages in a mass spectrometer which we need to consider, these are – ionisation, acceleration, deflection, and detection.

Why do we use mass spectrometry?

Mass spectrometry is an analytical tool useful for measuring the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of one or more molecules present in a sample. These measurements can often be used to calculate the exact molecular weight of the sample components as well.

## How does time of flight mass spectrometry work?

A common form of mass spectrometry is time of flight (ToF) mass spectrometry. In this technique, particles of the substance are ionised to form 1+ ions which are accelerated so that they all have the same kinetic energy. The time taken to travel a fixed distance is then used to find the mass of each ion in the sample.

## How does mass spectrometry imaging work?

After collecting a mass spectrum at one spot, the sample is moved to reach another region, and so on, until the entire sample is scanned. By choosing a peak in the resulting spectra that corresponds to the compound of interest, the MS data is used to map its distribution across the sample.

What is LC MS analysis?

Liquid Chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of liquid chromatography with the highly sensitive and selective mass analysis capability of triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

What is a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer?

Schematic diagram of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. From Andrews DL (1990) Perspectives in Modern Chemical Spectroscopy. Berlin: Springer-Verlag with permission.

### How is a FT-ICR mass spectrometer similar to an ion trap?

An FT-ICR mass spectrometer is much like an ion trap instrument in which the ions are trapped in a magnetic rather than an RF field. These instruments are key for the investigation of very large biomolecules where high mass accuracy is important ( Chen et al., 1995 ).

### How is MALDI carried out in a cyclotron resonance?

MALDI is carried out as described earlier with the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) acting as the mass analyser, where the m/z of analyte ions is determined by the cyclotron frequency of the ions within the fixed magnetic field of the instrument ( Scigelova, Hornshaw, Giannakopulos, & Makarov, 2011 ).

How are ions excited in a cyclotron resonance?

The ions are trapped in a Penning trap (a magnetic field with electric trapping plates), where they are excited (at their resonant cyclotron frequencies) to a larger cyclotron radius by an oscillating electric field orthogonal to the magnetic field.