What is primary refractory AML?

Abstract. Up to 30% of adults with acute myeloid leukemia fail to achieve a complete remission after induction chemotherapy – termed primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia. There is no universally agreed definition of primary refractory disease, nor have the optimal treatment modalities been defined.

How I treat refractory acute myeloid leukemia?

Patients with relapsed or refractory (r/r) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a poor prognosis and treatment remains challenging. For the majority of r/r patients, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment approach.

Does AML come back after remission?

AML relapse affects about 50% of all patients who achieved remission after initial treatment, and can occur several months to several years after treatment. However, every patient carries the risk of relapse, and the majority of relapses occur within two to three years of initial treatment.

What is refractory AML?

Refractory AML means the leukemia did not respond to treatment. Complete remission has not been reached because the chemotherapy drugs did not kill enough leukemia cells. Both relapsed and refractory AML need more treatment to reach complete remission.

What is salvage chemotherapy for AML?

Intensive chemotherapy regimens, which are often composed of a combination of cytarabine with other cytotoxic agents or hematopoietic growth factors, are used as salvage therapies for R/R AML.

How do you treat refractory or relapsed AML?

Chemotherapy is usually given for relapsed or refractory AML. It may include repeating cycles of the same or similar drugs that were used in induction treatment if the complete remission was longer than one year. Similar or higher doses of the drugs may be used. A repeat course of the 7-and-3 protocol may be given.

Is AML completely curable?

Although AML is a serious disease, it is treatable and often curable with chemotherapy with or without a bone marrow/stem cell transplant (see the Types of Treatment section).

Is AML curable?

How do I treat refractory AML?

For refractory AML, treatment options may include drugs not already used during the first course of treatment. Stem cell transplantation may be used when remission is achieved, which may result in a more durable remission.

How do I treat relapsed AML?

Treatment for patients failing remission induction is currently allogeneic stem cell transplant or chemotherapy. Patients with AML that relapses after an initial complete remission can be cured with autologous stem cell transplant.

What is the life expectancy of a person with leukemia?

Life expectancy for this kind of leukemia may be 10 years, 20 years or even longer. Leukemia life expectancy also depends on the type of blood cells affected by the cancer. There are two groups of leukemia: lymphocytic and myelogenous, which are further divided into sub-groups, each with differing survival rates.

What are the symptoms of acute myeloid leukemia?

Early symptoms of adult acute myeloid leukemia are often similar to those caused by the flu or other common illness and may include fever, shortness of breath, easy bruising or bleeding, petechiae (flat, pinpoint reddish-purple spots under the skin caused by bleeding), weakness or feeling tired,…