What are the symptoms of Moraxella catarrhalis?
M. catarrhalis sometimes also causes sinus infections. These infections are typically mistaken for a cold or allergies until the symptoms get worse. Some symptoms include discolored drainage from the nose, high fever, fatigue, swelling in the face, and pain in the forehead or behind the eyes.
What does Moraxella catarrhalis cause?
A number of common childhood illnesses, including some middle ear (otitis media) and sinus infections (sinusitis), are caused by Moraxella catarrhalis bacteria. On rare occasions, this same organism may cause a blood infection (bacteremia), an eye infection (conjunctivitis), and meningitis in newborns.
How do you treat M catarrhalis?
Amoxicillin-clavulanate, second- and third-generation oral cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) are the most recommended agents. Alternatively, azithromycin or clarithromycin can be used. More than 90% of M catarrhalis strains have been shown to resist amoxicillin, and these rates vary by region.
How do you test for Moraxella catarrhalis?
Confirmation of the diagnosis of M catarrhalis infection is based on isolation of the organism in culture. Cultures can be taken from middle ear effusion, the nasopharynx, sputum, sinus aspirates, transtracheal or transbronchial aspirates, blood, peritoneal fluid, wounds, or urine.
Is Moraxella catarrhalis common?
About 1 to 5% of healthy adults have upper respiratory tract colonization. Nasopharyngeal colonization with M. catarrhalis is common throughout infancy, may be increased during winter months, and is a risk factor for acute otitis media; early colonization is a risk factor for recurrent otitis media.
How is M. catarrhalis transmitted?
Transmission is believed to be due to direct contact with contaminated secretions by droplets. The endotoxin of M catarrhalis, a lipopolysaccharide similar to those found in Neisseria species, may play a role in the disease process.
How does Moraxella catarrhalis spread?
Is Moraxella a cocci?
Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram-negative cocci that causes ear and upper and lower respiratory infections. M. catarrhalis is also known as Branhamella catarrhalis.
What are the symptoms of Moraxella catarrhalis infection?
Moraxella catarrhalis Infection. In lower respiratory disease, patients experience increased cough, purulent sputum production, and increased dyspnea. These gram-negative cocci resemble Neisseria sp but can be readily distinguished by routine biochemical tests after culture isolation from infected fluids or tissues.
What are the side effects of M catarrhalis infection?
Complications of M catarrhalis infection may include the following: Recurrence. Bacteremia and sepsis. Meningitis. Mastoiditis. Hearing loss.
What are the symptoms of a catarrhalis sinus infection?
M. catarrhalis can also cause sinus infections in children as well as adults with weakened immune systems. Symptoms of a sinus infection are similar to those of a cold, but tend to get worse over the course of a week rather than better. They can also cause greenish-yellow discharge in your nose, pressure or pain in your face, and a fever.